Indian Elephant with baby, Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India.
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia. Listed as Endangered by IUCN, the population has declined by at least 50% over the last 60 to 75 years or three generations.
The main threats to Asian elephants today are habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation, which are driven by an expanding human population, and lead in turn to increasing conflicts between humans and elephants when elephants eat or trample crops. The exploitation for ivory and the associated poaching remains a grave concern.